Vice president CHINCOLD
The WCD Report with respect to China’s Dams
The global debate about large dams is overwhelmingly complex. The mandate of WCD seeks to turn costly controversies into clear and productive consensus in the increasingly confrontational debate about the role of large dams. By November of last Year WCD launched its final report."Dams and Development: A new Frame work for Decision-Making", and announced that WCD will be disappeared and the remained issues will succeed take over by World Bank. At the same time, it was also made public all over the world.
There was a strong response after WCD launched the final result. The WCD report seemed failed to secure enough consensus or compromise on some basic concepts. We are not sure WCD has completed its mandate in general. As for us, we agree with the comments and responses made by ICOLD, IHA, ICID and many other ICOLD national committees and so on. We support, in particular, the timely response and initial comment made by Mr.C.V.J.Varma and Prof. R.Lafitte
China is the world’s largest developing country and is the biggest dam building intensive country and already has nearly half of the world’s large dams. We think we are obliged to make our viewpoints clear on this issue. Following is our comment on WCD Report with respect to Chinese Dams.
The role of dams in China can not be substituted
China's total annual storage of water resource is 2812 billion cubic meters but per capita holding is only 1/4 of the world's average. In addition, uneven time-space distribution of the water resource has resulted in frequent catastrophic flood and drought disasters in China.During the past 2000 years, there occurred 1092 times of flood disasters and 1056 times of drought calamities. It means, China suffered either from flooding or from drought every year. In 1949 in China, there were only 22 large dams with height over 15 meters, total hydropower installations of 360MW, annual power production of 1.2 TW.h, And an irrigation area of 16 million hectares and 42,000 kilometer levees.The Chinese people have suffered a great deal from flood and drought disasters and led a poor life for too long in the past
Statistics show that since 1949, the annual average drought affected area was more than 20million ha, of which, 8 million ha were turned into real disaster areas.
In the past decade, the annual water shortage in national irrigation district was more than 30 billion cubic meters
The floods in 1931 and 1935 in the Yangtze River basin resulted in 3.4 million and 1.5 million hectares of farmland inundated and 145000 and 142000 people died respectively.In 1954, 3.17 million hectares of farmland was inundated by floods, more than 30,000 people died, In addition 18.88 million people suffered from flood damages.
In 1998, an extremely disastrous flood occurred in the Yangtze River basin, which inundated an area of 3.21x105 km2, and killed 1562 people. Thanks to the 763 large and medium sized reservoirs along the main stem and tributary. With a total capacity of impounding 34.0 billion cubic meters of water, the stages of the river were effectively lowered, and the flood detention basin was not used, thus reducing the number of victims and inundated farmland greatly in contrast with those flood disasters occurred in 1931, 1935 and 1954. It was estimated that about seven million local residents survived the flood disaster, about 3.3 x106 km2 of arable lands and more than 30 counties and cities exempted from inundation, and important traffic roads such as the Beijing-Jiulong Railway, the Beijing- Guangzhou Railway and the State high ways were protected. The total benefits resulting from flood control infrastructures were assessed at about 50 billion Yuan. Even though, the direct economic losses caused by the flood still exceeded the total investment of the Three Gorges Project (TGP ).
In 1998, Major floods broke out in the Yangtze River, Nenjiang River, Songhuajiang River and Minjiang River all at once. 1335 large and medium sized reservoirs nation-wide were put in the flood control which had retained the flood water by 53.2 billion cubic meters, thus reducing the inundated farmland and helping 27.37 millions of people living in more than 200 cities along the rivers free from the disaster.
China now has 24,000 large dams and 84,944 reservoirs of varying size with a total containing capacity of 492.4 billion cubic meters of water, including 403 large-scale reservoirs with a total storage capacity of 359.5 billion cubic meters of water. In addition, there exist 31,742 sluice works and 260,000 kilometer length of levees. 7900 kilometers of dikes have been newly built and rehabilitated, and the 34,500 square kilometers of flood detention area has a total storage capacity of 97.07 billion cubic meters, which protect 400 million people.
4.6 million of various water supply works have been constructed across the country.Annual water supply has increased from 100 billion cubic meters before 1949 to 580 million cubic meters at present, with an additional 210 million people enjoying drinking water supplies. The national water supply by reservoirs is about 160 billion cubic meters annually, accounting for about 30% of the total, thus playing an important role in industrial and agricultural production and people’s life.
The farmland of irrigated area has been increased from 16 million ha in 1949 to 53 million ha at present, Of which, 33 million ha are farmland with high yields and steady production.
Now, China has solved the problem of feeding its population of 1.3 billion people, 22% of the world’s total, but using less than 10% of the world's cultivated land. As every body could see, water conservancy works, including dam construction, have been playing a very important role.
By the end of 2000 the installed capacity for hydropower was 79,352 MW. With an annual energy production 243.1 TWh. China's hydro-energy exploitable potential is 378 GW. Which ranks first in the world. But its utilization ratio is still very low, only 13% has been used (about 21% of the capacity).
About 300 million people living in the countryside now rely on small hydro and the rural electrification has been emphasized and has preliminarily materialized.
By the year 2010, following the completion of TGP, the installed capacity will reach 125 million KW, That will probably ranking first in the world then.
Development and Dams
Even under strict control, China's population is expected continue to increase up till to 2030~2050 while the population will reach 1.6 billion, in a steady level. Per capita share of water will be reduced from 2300 cubic meters to 1700 cubic meters. And river system to the north of the Yangtze River account for 63.5% national territory, but only 19% of her water resource. And precipitation varies drastically by year and season. Water consumption will increase accordingly, hence, more dams and water works are needed.
The rapid development of China’s economy also demands more water resources. During the past decade the country's annual increment ratio of GDP was 8~10% or more. In the beginning of this new century it is expected to slow down to 7~8%. Obviously, the increment is still rather high and China has to build more dams to meet the demands of development.
The challenges and opportunities
The total water demand in the middle of 21st century will be controlled within 800 billion cubic meters, i.e. increasing about 220 over the present level. 580 billioncubic meters .Excess water available from ecological systems will be recycled after being purified in water treatment plants.
However, the present water conservancy measures are not compatible with the needs of the economical and social development of the country. How to solve this problem is a tremendous task for China. China's current water issues are mainly manifested in frequent threats of chronic flood and drought disasters, shortage of water resources and deterioration of ecological environment. For example, during this year in 2001 early summer, while a part of south China being hit by a vicious flood, At the same time a part of north China suffers from a long lasting draught.
Flood control is a long-term and urgently pressing task for China. At present, an average of 266 million hectares of farmland suffers from drought disasters annually. In rural areas, 24 million peoples still have difficulty in accessing drinking water. Out of the 600 cities, around the country, 400 have deficits in water supply. Drought and water shortages have become a major constraint on social-economic development, in particular, the stable development of the agricultural sector. The pollution of water is relatively serious in China. Both the quantity of waste-water discharge and the length of rivers polluted are growing. Most cities have been affected by water pollution to different degrees. Soil erosion has become the focus of public concern. The dry-out of rivers is exacerbating in northern river systems. In addition., China is also challenged by the issues of shrinking lake and river bodies, degradation of grass land, wet land, desertification of farmland and excessive withdrawal of underground water.
As a developing country, China, in developing its economy, has been pursuing a strategy of sustainable, rapid and healthy development. So it has to take into account of all aspects of the issue, such as the speed of economic development, environmental protection and social stability, etc. As for dams building, it is highly desirable to consider the benefit, options and optimization concern about dams, including flood control, power production, irrigation, water supply, navigation, recreation, and environmental protection, in addition to such important issues as dam safety and risk analysis should receive more attention..
It must be noted that most of China's reservoirs built in the 1950s and 1960s do not meet current design standard and need to be repaired and reinforced. There were more than 20 dam failures annually in recent years, though the governments at various levels have made every effort to rehabilitate and reinforce of the aged reservoirs.
By the end of 1998, 115 large reservoirs had been completely refurbished and rehabilitated. But, due to the budget limit, most reservoirs still need maintenance and upgrading. Since the 1998 floods, the Central Government has substantially increased the investment in water resources management. It has included the "Reservoir Rehabilitation and Consolidation Project" in its short-term water management construction plan. The plan will be realized as soon as possible.
The strategy and policy
According to its macro strategy of economical development, Chinese government is speeding up the development in the western region, including a policy of prior development of hydropower. China is determined to implement its plans of "transmitting power from west to east", transferring "water from south to north" and "transporting coal from north to south".
The policy of "reform and opening to the outside world" was carried out. First of all while taking the market trend as its development guide, during which the original planning economic management system has been reformed step by step, and the market economic principles and methods have been induced and followed. A new management system mainly consisting of the project owner (project legal person) responsibility system, construction supervision system, open bidding and contracting system has been established. The setting investment only from the state has been broken up, instead fund raising from multiple-channels such as local governments, enterprises, as well as some individuals.
We are implementing the principle of establishing the mechanism of market-oriented economic system in greater depth. The important job is to finalize comprehensive planning of river basins, and schedule the consequent process of dam cascade through sustainable development. Also establish river basin/regional development corporations,founded from multiple channels of the investment opportunities. Confirm the legal status of the dam project's owner. Authorized the duty and obligation to exploit the development of river basins. Above all, it should be realized that the role of dams is very important for the development of river basins.
Dams is the wealth and treasure of human civilization
Since the King Dayu succeed flood harnessing and water treatment scheme in China, there have been more than 4000 years of water resources development.
The Dujiang Weir Project, was built in Qin Dynasty under the leadership of Li Bing,more than 2000 years ago, And still makes a huge contribution to agriculture of irrigation farmland extend to more than 0.67 million hectare in the Western Sichuan Plain, so called the " Land of Abundance" on the Chengdu Plain in China. It was listed in the National culture relic protection on highest degree. And also as the world culture relic approved by UN.
Inevitably, dams should be further developed into the future based on relevant advanced modern scientific methodologies and synthesis innovative technology. Dams will still as a part of the history including in the developing of human civilization. Dams developing in China reflect the objective law for the development of human civilization.
The function of Dams
Dam is a kind of structure for hydraulic scheme, dam sustain the water load and to retain the hydraulic pressure. The function of dams is the essential foundation for infrastructure for the development of water resource and energy. And also used for variety purposes. The soundness of development is mainly founded on investment and particularly by the creation of infrastructures. It means that development need for dams. Dam is one kind of inevitable infrastructure for development.
Energy and power
As we know, water and energy are the non-fungible resources for the survival and development of human beings. Are impossible substituted by any other resources. These two key factors will further constrain the economic development of China.
There already a lot of scenario studies relating to the energy demand for china, though different data are obtained, but the discrepancy is not significant. Roughly, the annual demand of energy from present 1.5 Btce will increase to 2.1~2.5 Btce, and 2.5~3.0Btce in 2010 and 2020 respectively. In the coming 20 years the demand of energy will doubled increase in comparison with year 2000 , corresponding to Energy demand per capita tce annuallyfrom present 1.15 increase to 1.5~1.7 and 1.7~2.0 during year 2010 and 2020 , at present, the energy consumption is much lower than advanced countries (only 1/15~1/10).
The energy consumption in China is relying on coal basically, which occupy about 77% of the whole country. The raw coal production was exceeding 1.4 billion ton per year ranks first in the world. To transport the coal from north to south is constrained severely, which occupied about 40% of railway capability. The production of coal up to 2010 and 2020 will reached 1.7Bt and 2.0Bt respectively. The coal is the main primary in energy mix, The terrible environment problems are caused by direct combustion of coal. 87% of SO2 (That was 20.9 mil tons in 1998), 71% of NOX and 60% of particulate of total amount of emission are from the combustion of coal. The territory of acid rain with PH value less than 5.6 is growing increasingly, at present, the area is about 40%, mainly in the developed regions, the social and economical losses are enormous.China has been searching the alternative of energy supply with the aim to reduce the share of coal but will be still about 50% up to 2050. Should urgently accelerate the development of innovative clean coal technology with effective high economic efficiency.
It is estimated that import petrol may be reached 100 million ton by the year 2005, because of its high price and limited deposit, the utilization of oil should be restricted. The reserve exploitation ratio of petroleum in China is much lower than world average and far from security.
The development of Natural Gas (NG) in recent year is quite optimistic,It has decided to construct a gas pipe line from remote west to east with length of 4200 KM, diameter of 1118mm transportation capacity is 12~30 Bm3 annually, and will double the present share ofNG 2%, up to 2020 will occupy the general energy Mix 10%.At that time Nuclear energy will cover 5% of the total. The theoretical wind power products in China is 254GW, but at present the capacity is only 240MW, The capacity of wind power is expected reach 1GW by the year 2005.
Up to now the wind power, solar energy, geothermal, biogas and wave energy are the auxiliary energy resources because of the limitation for geographic, economic and technical reasons.Therefore, the hydropower still remains one of the main energy resources in China in the next 50 years.
The power output per capita is only about 1000kW.h per year, at present the installed capacity is about 0.25 KW per capita, for the medium living standard, at least 1.0 KW, is required, This means that a four fold increase is necessary.
Hydropower and coal-fired power are the two main facilities for electricity generating in China. The potential economic and technical availability of hydropower installation is 297GW. Hydropower, as a renewable and clean energy, will be developed continuously because it plays an important role forsustainable development of energy and assure environment's security in China, until to the middle of this century, more than 200 GW of hydropower will be exploited the, China will be a developed country in the world on mid-level.
In accordance with the Tenth National Five-Year Plan and the Long-term Plan to 2015, installed capacity will reach 95300MW in 2005, 125,000MW in 2010, and 150,000MW, in 2015. At that time the hydropower's installed capacity will be 28% of the total and its exploitation rate will come up to 40%.
In summary, the bottleneckfor sustainable development in China are energy and water, and the affected environment. China lacks adequate resources, even for the abundant coal resource the amount of per capita is 50% of the world average. And the petroleum per capita is only 1/10 of the world average. In the middle of the 21st century even if all the exploitable hydropower is available, the development of China will still relatively constrained by energy under a medium developed level. There is no substitute for building more dams to instead of dams for development of energy.
Experience with Dams in Water and Energy Resource Development in the P.R.C.
Mr. Veltrop has strongly supported and has personally been involved with dam construction in China, especially for the Ertan project where he made an excellent contribution.As an old friend, he visited China during May of last year, his international travelling expenses was covered by himself. He presented to us only a WCD's China country review paper titled "Experience with Dams in Water and Energy Resource Development in the P.R.C." That was the final draft dated on 24 March, 2000, of a working paper prepared for WCD as part of its information gathering activities. The views and conclusions in the working paper are those of the authors and do not present the views of the Commission. We haven't made any comments on that draft. So far, we don't know of any domestic Chinese expert who join to the above work. Some of the information and data should be revised and enlarged.
Dr. Jan. Veltrop enjoys the esteem with a high reputation as a scholar of dams. We appreciate his enthusiastic spirit in research of the experience of China. We are well come Mr.Veltrop have done many contributions personally.
I regret that we did not have a chance to review the preliminary draft before WCD 's report was published. Unfortunately the draft report and the executive summary is considered by the commission as a confidential document. I would like rather preference to criticize and comment on a draft under a trust and constructive cooperation condition before the report was lunched.
The Chinese Committee on Large Dams intents to prepare a report on the challenges faced by dams into 21st century, covering both learning from the past and looking forward to the future. That report will indicate our conclusion.
Aspect on WCD Report
The 20th Congress of the International Commission on Large Dams was successful held in Beijing, September of last year, attended over 2000 experts. At the opening of the congress, the Vice Premier Wen Jia Bao on behalf of the China Government announced That" At present, China has the most large dams in the world and leads in many areas of dam building. Dam construction has played an important role in flood control, irrigation, water supply and power generation.""Therefore the Chinese Government will continue to give priority to the development of water recourses in the course of national economic development" and "to constantly raising the level of water resource development and dam construction."
WCD's first mandate was " to review the development effectiveness of large dams and assess alternatives for water resources and energy development ". At the heart,WCD's general judgement is biased. That is " but that all too often the price paid to secure those benefit has been unacceptable and often unnecessary. " In China, that all to often the development effective of large dams was the positive and obviously larger than negative. The report seems to generalize and exaggerate dam's adverse aspects of dams.
Some aspects of WCD's report, such as concern for the environment and the five core values were emphasized.These fit well with ICOLD's Position Paper on Dams and Environment. The basic principles likely appear correct, However we feel that a single set of rules for a wide variety of different circumstance is not feasible. The guidelines summarized as "5 principles, 7 priorities in 5 stages of planning" and "26 multi-criteria" are a complex mixture, especially so far the multi-step negotiations between all stakeholders, the endless negotiations and dispute are likely to result in non decision-making. WCD's complicated new frame-work of Decision-Making is difficult to implement. The report seems acceptable on many principles, but it fails to offer technical criteria and standards for the practical execution when dam builder are face to different purposes at various stages. For example for the planning, design, appraisal, construction, operation, monitoring and decommissioning of dams. Above mission was agreed in the mandate of WCD. Also emphasized by Kader Asmal.
In general, the report of WCD focuses on negative performances of dams, intentionally assessing the negative aspect of large dam project all around the world. The report also recognizes "Dams have made an important and significant contribution to human development, and the benefits derived from dams have been considerable." Nevertheless, it does not include a detailed survey of the substantial benefits derived from dams. There is a tendency of avoiding many explicit figures for the benefit of dams. Some are found on pages 11 through 15 of the Final Report. The explanation given on those pages is not sufficient. Some statements are based on inadequately researched data. These are unfair and not equitable for the assessment of the positive and negative performances of dams.The assessment should be integrated in a global sum evaluation. It is essential that benefits of large dam projects always be evaluated on the scale of macro-economy and strategic synthesis, beyond the local base.
Alternatives for water resources and energy development
It is impossible to substitute or alternate water and energy by any other resources. China is especially in shortage of water and energy resources. Alternatives to energy supply exist, some times may be also for flood protection. But no substitute for water has been invented yet for matching irregular and not assured water flows. Also, a comprehensive alternative solution, covering the multiple purposes and benefits of a dam project, often does not exit. For example, there does not exist any alternative solution for the dam of Three Gorges Project, for getting rid of the threat from flood disaster for the vast region downstream of the dam site.
The storage, transportation and sanitation of water are often absolutely necessary, subsequently alternative for dams to storage water is all too often not reality.
The Framework for Decision-Making.
The substantial problem of the framework for decision-making is its legal frame, the question is who has the legal duty and the obligation/ right to make or approve the final decision, for ultimately in charge,Who are the legal participant for decision making, How to make the final decision or the final judgement.What are its procedure, criteria, standard and the legal formalities. And when is the deadline of decision-making.
In China according the magnitude, importance and the position of a project the Legal Frame of final decision-making are quiet different. For instant, The construction of Three Gorges Project was approved through National Peoples Congress (NPC) by ballot vote, The China Yangtze Three Gorges Project Development Cooperation (CTGPC) is the legal representative of the project.And to develop relevant water resources on the upstream of Yangtze River basin was authorized by State Council. That is on the highest legal level.For the small hydro project is not necessary should to pass through the parliamentary approval, even on the lowest level. But all the projects should obey the law under the legal frame of project decision-making and supported by local authorities
A series of legislation and policies for Chinese dam construction has been formulated through 50 years of practice.The important laws or regulations have to be examined and approved by the NPC for implementation.Main laws are Water Law, Land Law, the Law on Water and Soil Conservation, the Law for Flood Control, the Law for Water Pollution Control, Environmental Protection Law, Electricity Law, Law for Cultural Relics Preservations.Some relative regulations are : the Regulations for Land Requisition and Resettlement for Large & Medium Water and Hydropower Project Construction, the Regulation on Safety and Management of Dam and Reservoir, the Regulation on River Management, the Regulation for Flood Control, the Regulations for Resettlement of Three Gorges Project Construction, Implement Regulation on Law for Water and Soil Conservation, Implement Detail Guidelines on Law for Water Pollution Control. And so on.
The constitutions and institutions related to the dam construction will be improved in depth gradually. In pace with the development of social and national economy that will pay more attention to the effects on securing the right and living standard of relocatee in reservoir resettlement, culture relics preservation, environmental and ecological impact.
Every country or region has its own characteristic features that can't be unified in an international legal frame for decision-making. But each county should obey existing laws, needs and its prevailing conditions, systematically. And to reform the existing system should be steadily and carefully to guarantee the gradual progress successful. Some adjustments could well be acceptable.which based on some of the general recommendations proposed by WCD.
The jurisdiction of legal authorities and the role of state seem ignored by WCD Report. Even, we are noticed that WCD has made proposal for more effective planning and implementation of dam projects for the benefit of the entire population from well aspiration.
The final authority is the sovereign government, decisions about implementation, adaptation of WCD's advisory would be in domain of sovereign states.
An independent country should have their owned individual criteria, guidelines and Standards. Up to now there are not existing any universal frame work for Decision-making, therefor it is impossible and unnecessary " to develop " or to create a new framework for internationally acceptable. The WCD has neither the right nor the capacity to" develop international acceptable criteria, guidelines and standards for the planning, design, appraisal, construction, operation, monitoring and decommissioning of dams. "All of these criteria and standards should be country specific and lie in the hands of individual governments. Expect from them to develop guidelines which could then modify as find appropriate.
The human right frame work
We doubt the view that is put dam issues within the framework of human right. We all noticed there are some different understanding on the definition of human right. In general the most important human right is the right for the people to be survived and to be developed. And the right of majority people should be put in the first place and be fully protected. And to build a dam must not sacrifice the right of any affected people. Our policy makes many preferential for minority people. There is not existing, so called indigenous people in China.In Report the issue of identify the concept of indigenous people that is only the result of old colonial rule.
In the past 50 years Dam construction was submerged 1.5 million ha of land and has involved relocating some 12 million people.(the resettled population, as a result of the nature expansion of families, now is increases to 17 million.)Because of a lack of experience and inadequate awareness the complexity of resettlement gave rise to some problems. The Chinese Government at a later stage implemented a support policy in include providing funds on an annual basis to resolve the remaining problems
In the More recent period since China's reform, the resettlement has also been implemented according to the new principles. The Shuikou and the Xiaolandi project were financed by World Bank, W.B recommended above two projects are regarded as successful resettlement models.
Resettlement case history for Three Gorges Project.
The resettlement issue is one of the most important policy-related affairs in the construction of Three Gorges Project. The Chinese Government pays great attention to the issuesfrom the very beginning and recognize that is a difficult problem, which will have a key effect on the success or failure of the project construction. Resettlement is under the commands of Resettlement Bureau of Three Gorges Project Construction Committee of the State Council. While local government of the provinces cities and counties are obliged consider relocation is the highest priority.The planned resettled population will be 1.13 million. The arrangement of such a large scale involuntary resettlement is still the first time in the history of the water conservancy and hydropower project construction in China .By the year 2003 before the reservoir impoundingthere will be about half of the population resettled , in recent years the annual relocation approximately about 100,000 peoples. Up to the May of 2001, about 320,000 people were achieved relocation. The State Council promulgated "Rules for Resettlement for Three Gorges Project Construction", thus laying a lawful base for the development-oriented resettlement.
The large scale resettlement now carried out in TGP as development-oriented resettlement. Which is represented in the following basic principles:the principle of reasonable compensation , the principle of reorganizing development, that is to place the focal point on the exploitation of resources, development of economy, restoration and elevation of the income level and livability of the people in resettlement, the principle of government responsibility . That means " leadership maintained in the central government, responsibility taken by the related provinces and implementation at county level.", the principle of sustainable development, the principle of self-reliance with the support of the State, preferential policies and helps from all circle.And the principle of profit share, that is a certain amount of funds should be abstracted from the power generation income and at the same time part of the taxes given by the Three Gorges Power Station should be distributed to local government of reservoir region to be used in the later period in support of the newly resettled people and the development of the reservoir region.
To comply WCD'srecommendation dogmatically into the IFI's business is very detrimental to their development mandates.
The obligation of World Bank
The stated mission of the World Bank includes: "to fight poverty with passion and professionalism for lasting result" and "encouragement of the development of productive facilities and resources in less developed countries."Over the past two decades the World Bank and ADB have made enormous contribution to China in related project. There are many excellent examples of dam supported by World Bank and highly praised by us, such as Ertan, Lubuge, Shuikou, and Xiaolangdi project. The World Bank so far has financed a total of 16 project involving in the construction of large dams aggregated amount of US million loans (accounting for 16.33% of the total lending, comparing with the same figure of 1% only Bank wide in 1990s). We need the IFI"s continued support in Chinese dam construction. Controversy is no excuse to wash IFI's hands off dams, except otherwise, the Bank is a pure commercial one. We strongly encourage the IFI strengthening the so-far neglected developing countries voice, criticizing the wrong direction of the WCD report, emphasizing the positive role of the dams, and sticking to their development mandate.
The WCD has disappeared. Subsequently Asmal has dismissed from the position of chairman. But the World Bank is still very strong as the Chinese proverb say: "Buddhist monk escaped, the temple still exist.". " If want to untie the bell, need for the person who tied it."World Bank is one of the most important initiator of WCD. We are waiting the response from Mr.Wolfensohn,
Acknowledgement to WCD.
We also thank WCD for setting before us the challenging task to develop perfect dam projects of very high quality. And encourage us further to work hard to facilitate effective cooperation between the technical professional and others with a legitimate interest in a project. The WCD Report contributed us to face the challenge of dam development in the fields of water and energy security, and it is the catalyst for continued discussion. Many thanks for WCD report that offer to me abundant valuable information and propose some interesting recommendations or questions what ever aware so far. I would like to study and research some of the problems that will be to help us faced the development of dams.
Looking forward to 21st century
In the past 50 years the annual completed large dams was 500 in China, but during the last decade the number was decreased to about 70~150, the dams under construction was 250~371 annually, the peak intensity period of dam construction in China was passed. Estimate that the numbers of large dam under construction has a tendency to gradually decrease.In the first decade of 21st century the number of dam under construction will approximately drop down from about 25% occupied the world total during last decade. Dams commissioned annually may be less than 100 probably. But we planned to construct a serious of huge dam project such as the Longtan is a RCC dam with a height of 218M and the capacity of 5400MW was officially lunched the start of construction. The Xiowan arch dam with a height of 293M and capacity of 4200MW, Shuibuya concrete face rock fill dam with a height of 233M and capacity 1600MW were put the preparation work under construction.
Xilodu and Xiangjaba project at the upstream of TGP, will start their construction followed the TGP put in to operationconsequently, the capacity of above two project is equal to the TGP. The capacity of Xilodu project is 12,000 MW, with a arch dam of 273 M high.
The east line of transfer water from south to north will start at the end of this year.
No force can stop or prevent the development of dam, which are so urgently needed in China, include the Three Gorges Project.
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